Bài giảng dưới đây là một phần trong Sách Ielts Writing Task 1 by Dương Vũ – Copyright by IDV IELTS, order here.
Dạng Process bao gồm quy trình tự nhiên (Natural process) và nhân tạo (Man-made process). Dạng tự nhiên thường là vòng đời của các loài động / thực vật hay vòng tuần hoàn của nước, là một vòng khép kín. Dạng nhân tạo thì đa dạng hơn có thể là quy trình sản xuất (production process), quy trình làm việc (flow chart), hay quy trình hoạt động của một công cụ nào đó (how something works/ functions). Đặc trưng của dạng process chính là ngôn ngữ tả thứ tự các bước (theo trình tự thời gian. Dưới đây là những cấu trúc thông dụng nhất cho dạng process.
Natural process – Life Cycle
Intro: The diagram/ illustration highlights the various stages involved in the life cycle of a … as it transforms from a/ an (egg) … into a fully grown adult.
Overview: nên viết nếu có thể đánh giá khái quát về cycle / Thời: Hiện tại đơn là chính
Tách Cycle thành 2 phần chính cho hợp lí
Body – Từ nối thứ tự + Rephrase các từ trong process
The cycle starts with ST V-ing… After/ Once/ When S + have V-ed (hoặc after + V-ing), the …then … . Next (Subsequently), the …
Following the …period/ stage, the …then …
Eventually/ Finally, the …transforms into… which in turn lays eggs and so the cycle begins anew.
Các động từ / danh từ hay gặp trong Life Cycle
Lay an egg / lay eggs
Hatch into / emerge from eggs / emerge from its outer shell
Shed its skin = moult
Migrate to = move to
Occur = take place ~ last (+ time)
Become fully grown adults = turn into = transform into
Reproduce = mate
Larva (nhộng; số nhiều larvae) -> Pupa (Nhộng bọc; Pupae)
Nymph: ấu trùng
Intro + Overview: The diagram highlights/ illustrates how ST is made/ produced…Overall, there are …main stages in the process, starting at / with … and ending at / with …
Body: (Bị động là chính, có hiện tại hoàn thành)
The …process begins/ starts when ST is V-ed before being V-ed… and then V-ed. (start with ST being V-ed)
Following the V-ing stage, it enters the … phase which results in …
Once the …has/ have been V-ed, the … is V-ed and is subsequently V-ed.
During this particular stage, …
Finally,the … Now, the production/ manufacturing process has finished and the … is ready for…
Các động từ/ danh từ hay gặp trong Production Cycle
Chú ý cả các danh từ chỉ dụng cụ, bộ phận như: container, tank
Be put into = be inserted into = go/ enter ST (a container/ a mixer)
Be taken out ~ extracted from ~ removed from ~ separated
Added with ~ mixed with / blended with ST => the mixture of
Result in / produce / be made into
Changed into (* to) ~ Transformed into
Be sent to / transferred to / moved to / passed through
Be pressed/ ground / crushed / cracked / milled
Filtered / purified
The material(s)/ the resulting product * the result * the end product
Lưu ý: V-ing và V-ed cũng được dùng như tính từ
Bài Mẫu BAND 8+ Dạng Process Task 1 – Copyright by Duong Vu – IDV Ielts
Life cycle of a frog
The given diagram illustrates the various stages involved in the life cycle of a frog as it changes from an egg to a tadpole and finally a fully-grown adult. It is clear that there are two major parts in the cycle based on the frog’s habitats: under the water and on land.
The cycle starts with a female frog laying her eggs in calm water among vegetation during the breeding season. These fertilized eggs are joined together and float on the water surface. After a period of time, each egg transforms into an embryo which then takes the form of a tadpole and is able to swim.
As the tadpole continues to grow, it begins to develop hind limbs. Following this, front legs also emerges and skin forms while the tail gradually shrinks. This marks an important milestone since the tadpole starts pulmonary breathing. Once the tiny frog has reached the adult stage, it is ready to migrate onto dry land and eventually grows into a fully grown frog that then looks for a mate for reproduction. The cycle begins again. (181 words)
Driving License – How to get it – Flow chart process
The illustration highlights the various stages involved in obtaining a driving license. Overall, the applicants must pass three separate tests to get the license, namely the eyesight test, the written exam and the road exam.
The first step is to visit the local driving license centre where applicants have to complete several forms and take a test to measure their eyesight, a prerequisite for their application. In case their eyesight does not meet specific requirements, they will not be qualified for a license. If, however, they pass this test, they will be able to move to the next step of paying for the following tests.
Once the payment is settled, applicants subsequently take the written test first. Should they pass, they will then be able to participate in the driving test. Finally, a driving license will be issued to those passing the driving exam. One further point to note is that in case an applicant fails either of these two tests, he or she has to pay the respective fee again and retake the exam. (176 words)
* Flow thường dùng các cấu trúc câu với: If / In case / When / Once…, …
* Các từ trật tự thời gian như then, next, following this, subsequently, after …
PROCESS OLIVE OIL PRODUCTION (ẢNH TRÊN)
The illustration demonstrates how different types of olive oil are produced. Overall, the production of extra virgin olive oil requires less processing than that of ordinary olive oil.
The whole process starts with harvesting and sorting ripe olive fruits. Graded olives are then transported to an oil extracting plant where they are cleaned and then ground with a stainless mill. Next, the olive pulp (paste) enters the pressing phase in which it is pressed. The result of this is a liquid consisting mainly of vegetation water and olive oil.
There are two major ways to obtain olive oil from the extracted liquid. The modern method uses a complicated refinery machine to produce refined olive oil. The traditional technique, on the other hand, involves only a filter and results in two types of products: the top-quality extra virgin olive oil and the virgin olive oil. The latter can be blended with refined olive oil to create a more mild type of olive oil that is commonly found in supermarkets.
BRICK PRODUCTION PROCESS
- Thân bài cứ viết được tầm 3-4 câu thì tách sang đoạn khác tả giai đoạn tiếp theo
- chú ý các động từ ở dưới, dạng man-made dùng nhiều bị động
The illustration highlights the various stages involved in the production of bricks for construction industry. Overall, there are six main phases starting with clay exploitation and ending with the delivery of finished bricks.
The manufacturing process of bricks starts when clay is mined in open pits with digger. It is then processed through a metal grid placed above a roller conveyor, which helps remove large lumps. The material is subsequently mixed with sand and water before entering the cutting phase. The mixture is shaped/ formed into bricks using either a wire cutter or a moulding machine. Raw bricks are then put into a drying oven for 24 to 48 hours depending on different types of clay.
Once the bricks have been dried, they are placed into kiln and fired, first at moderate temperatures (200 to 980 degree Celsius) and then at high temperatures (870 to 1300 degree Celsius). Following this, the bricks are sent to cooling chambers. The whole firing and cooling phase takes/ lasts 48 hours to 72 hours. Finally, the finished bricks are unloaded from the kiln, packed and delivered to the customers. (172 words)
CHOCOLATE PRODUCTION PROCESS
The illustration highlights various stages involved in the production of chocolate from cocoa beans. Overall, there are two main phases, including the harvest and pre-processing of the beans by farmers and the manufacturing of chocolate liquor in factories.
The whole process of chocolate production starts with harvesting ripe red pods from cocoa trees that are widely grown in South America, Africa and Indonesia. After being collected, the pods are split open for the removal of white cocoa beans which are then fermented for a certain period of time to produce desired flavours and the brown colour. The beans are subsequently left to dry in the sun before being put into large sacks and shipped to a chocolate factory.
In the factory, fermented cocoa beans are roasted at 350 degree Celsius and then crushed. It is during this particular stage, the outer shell of the beans is removed. Finally, the inner parts of the seeds are pressed, resulting in chocolate liquor, the key ingredient of all chocolate products. (167 words)
HORSE EVOLUTION PROCESS
The illustration highlights the evolution of the horse over a period of 40 million years, with a strong focus on the foot structure. It is clear that the horse has significantly grown in size and evolved from a four-toed to a one-toed animal.
The oldest ancestor of the horse, the Eohippus, lived around 40 million years ago and was about the same size as an adult wolf. It is characterized by a short tail, an arched back and four-toed front feet. The toes were relatively similar and each had two distinct parts. The next ancestor is called Mesohippus whose fossils are dated 30 million years ago. Unlike its predecessors, it had mane on the neck and only three toes on each forefoot. Particularly, its middle toe was considerably bigger than the side toes and was divided into three parts instead of two.
Around fifteen million years later, the Mesohippus evolved into the Merychippus which had a larger body, a longer tail and lengthened legs. Its middle toe had also grown substantially in size compared to that of its predecessor. The Merychippus looked almost the same as the modern horse, except that the latter has lost its side toes and is able to run with just a single toe on each foot.
HOT AIR BALOON – OBJECT PROCESS BY DUONG VU
The illustration demonstrates how a hot air balloon functions. Overall, although the balloon’s structure is quite complicated, it operates on a straightforward principle of hot air rising.
As can be seen in the diagram, a hot air balloon comprises of three major components: an envelope, a burner and a basket. The envelop is basically a fabric bag shaped like an inverted tear drop. It consists of numerous vertical gores made up of fabric panels. On the top of the balloon, there is a parachute valve which can be opened for hot air to escape at a desired rate. The bottom (lowest part) of the envelop named the skirt is firmly attached to a basket where passengers stand. The basket also contains propane cylinders that are connected to a burner fixed on a metal frame. This frame is attached to both the basket and the skirt.
The balloon works when the burner fuelled by propane tanks is started. Propane is released and mixed with air, resulting in flame that heats the air inside the envelope. Hot air is lighter than the cool air outside so it rises above, which causes the balloon to fly upwards. Obviously, if the air inside is cooled down, the balloon will gradually descend.
OBJECT – TUNNELS
The illustrations present data about Mon Blanc Road Tunnel in Europe and Seikan Railway Tunnel in Japan. Overall, the latter is significantly longer and its construction took far more time than that of the former.
Mont Blanc Tunnel, built under a mountain of the same name, is a highway tunnel connecting France and Italy. It is 11.6 kilometres in length and its maximum height is 4.35 metres. The Seikan Railway Tunnel, by contrast, was constructed across the Tsugaru Strait, linking Hokkaido City on Hokkaido Island and Aomori City on Honshu Island in Japan. Its total length is 53.85 kilometres which is almost five times longer than Mont Blanc Tunnel. A large part of Seikan Tunnel was built under the seabed and its deepest point is up to 240 metres.
With regard to construction time, it took 8 years to complete Mont Blanc Tunnel, starting in 1957 and finishing in 1965. Construction duration of Seikan Tunnel is 42 years (1946 – 1988), and this is more than five times longer than that of the road tunnel.
PROCESS IGLOO BUILDING
The diagram illustrates the process used for constructing an igloo from snow. Overall, there are five main steps involved, starting with cutting snow blocks and ending with digging an entrance.
The first step is to find an area covered with hard-packed snow and use a saw to make snow blocks. The base blocks must be larger and their ideal size should be 3 inches in width, 8 inches in length and 15 inches in height. Next, an over-sized block is created to build the dome (top) of the igloo.
Following this, the blocks are placed in a perfect circle building upward. It is crucial to smooth the edges of the blocks so that they could match and stick together. Once the igloo has been built, an entrance is formed by digging a hole under the walls. In the fourth step, loose snow is shovelled and packed/ filled/ shoved into all crevices on the outside of the igloo to make it more solid while the inside is smoothed by hand and excess snow is shoveled out. Finally, some small vents are created to keep the igloo well-ventilated and the desired entrance is shaped and covered with snow blocks.
PROCESS SMOKED FISH
The illustration demonstrates/ shows how smoked fish are produced. Overall, there are five main stages in the process starting with catching fish and ending with distributing final products to fish shops.
The whole process begins when fish are caught and shipped to the port. They are sorted and kept in cold storage. This helps prevent spoilage before the fish are transported to a processing factory. On the production line, frozen fish are first defrosted and cleaned thoroughly with fresh water. Next, they are cut in half and soaked in salt water added with yellow colouring, which removes the fishy smell and creates an appealing colour.
Following this, the coloured fish are smoked in a heat chamber and then sent through a packaging machine. Finally, packaged smoked fish are distributed to retailers/ fish shops, making them available for consumers to purchase. During the whole process of distribution and retail, smoked fish must be kept in freezers to preserve their good quality.
PROCESS SOFT DRINK PRODUCTION
The diagram/ illustration demonstrates how soft drinks are produced. Overall, there are five major stages in the process starting with water cleaning and ending with product distribution to retailers.
In the first stage, raw water is filtered and then treated with softener and other chemicals to remove any contaminants or impurities. Softened water then enters the next phase of heating evaporation and carbonation. It is pumped into and heated in an electric heaters, which leads to evaporation. Evaporated water passes through a cooling pipe and subsequently enters a tank where it is mixed with carbon dioxide, a key ingredient of soft drinks.
Following this, carbonated water is sent to the mixing tank where it is blended with certain colourings, syrup and flavours to create multiple types of beverage. The mixture is then filtered and poured into bottles or cans. In the final stage, the beverages are packed and labelled before being distributed to retailers for customers to purchase.
PROCESS STONE AGE CUTTING TOOLS (Rất khó) các bạn đọc link dưới nhé:
(FROM IELTS WRITING TASK 1 BY DUONG VU – COPYRIGHT IDV IELTS)
More Process Samples: Part 2